Consulting is a separate independent field range of services of a commercial nature, having the aim of training and ensuring the process of production and sales. In other words, the set of services associated with processing customer orders and information service on the computer in split time machine in the form of information, advice and expertise of different types of economic activity.
The specifics of the trade consulting services is that exports may only be carried out by temporarily moving to the country-importer of the production of these services (consultations, maintenance). This is not due to the novelty of this form of foreign economic activity, but only multiple properties for a specified type of service, the time consumption of which coincides with the moment of their production and sales.
Part of the consulting services include:
• direct management of professional managers and their teams and the company as a whole;
• assist in organizing activities of a business object;
• formation of the image of the company.
In this case, the consulting firm shall exercise full control over the implementation of the offer to the customer. This is the most common type of consulting in world trade. Sales volume is more than 25% of the total export consulting services.
In addition, there are such specialized consulting services, including the creation of a computerized logistics systems, the development of supply management, development of training programs for management, the implementation of legal and tax services. Tax consulting is a prominent part of the income audit and consulting networks.
In some cases, marketing consultants take on the functions of intermediaries, which is typical mainly for small firms. So, the Japanese firm Conusa Bugey” concluded with a number of consulting companies in Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand and the US agreement on cooperation in promoting the Japanese market their products. Maintenance cost was approximately $ 2.5 thousand. a month.
The consulting services market is one of the most dynamic. Currently collaborating with consultants 80% of all large U.S. companies. The vast majority of the leading consulting firms – American.
The main seller in the market of consulting services acts as the private sector, including small business, although its role decreased in the last years. In the U.S. this market is monopolized and put on an industrial basis. Tops the list of leading consulting firms McKinsey, which has its branches in almost all countries. The Japanese market services is somewhat different from the American. It is decentralized and is represented by three types of firms: firms engaged primarily staff and production; firms that provide assistance in developing a strategy for enterprises (about 75% of all services); and the so-called “think tanks”. In Western Europe the American “industrial” model combined with individual consultations of experts able to make a thorough judgment in their problems. However, as already noted, individual counseling gradually loses its position.
The classic version of consulting services originated in the U.S. in 20-ies. Further development he got in 50-60-ies During the second half of the 50s, begins to appear in Japan, but until the 70s of the studies were conducted only in respect of foreign markets in order to promote Japanese exports and ensure its raw materials. In the 70s. 50 consulting firms in Japan have formed an Association of marketing research, and from this period of growth .volume of services is 8-8,5% per year. In the 60s began to develop the market of consulting services in Western Europe, helped by supportive environment – the presence of a large number of recognized universities and firms.
Professional counselling was determined only at the beginning of the 60s when the establishment of American consulting firms increased interest in methods of management of the United States. In 1987, the Western firms for the first time spent on market research means more than U.S. $ 1.9 billion. against 1.8 billion. But now their position weakened slightly. In recent years, a significant portion of consulting services in the world on governance and development management strategy (about 80%) for 40 firms. By 2000, the number is reduced to 20.